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    Subcycle disturbance in the AC waveform evidenced by a sharp, brief discontinuity of the waveform. This may be of either polarity and may be additive or subtractive from the nominal waveform. Transients occur when there is a sudden change in the voltage or the current in a power system. Transients are short-duration events, the characteristics of which are predominantly determined by the resistance, inductance, and capacitance of the power system network at the point of interest. The primary characteristics that define a transient are the peak amplitude, the rise time, the fall time, and the frequency of oscillation. Figure 1.12 shows a transient voltage waveform at the output of a power transformer as the result of switching-in of a motor containing power factor correction capacitors.

    Motor transient

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